Neurosurgical Anatomy and Approaches to Simulation in Neurosurgical Training
Quality of neurosurgical care and patient outcomes are inextricably linked to surgical and technical proficiency and a thorough working knowledge of microsurgical anatomy. Simulated neurosurgical training is essential for the development and refinement of technical skills prior to their use on a living patient. Recent biotechnological advances—including 3D microscopy and endoscopy, 3D printing, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging—have proved to reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills in neurosurgical training. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training.